Publications







Berkeley County Public Service Sewer District Stormwater Financing Feasibility Study

July 21, 2015

The EFC has been working collaboratively with Berkeley County, West Virginia, to conduct a stormwater financing feasibility study. Berkeley County lies in the Potomac River watershed and is the only county in West Virginia to hold a stormwater MS4 permit. Under the County’s MS4 permit, the Berkeley County Public Service Sewer District (PSSD) is required to develop a stormwater management program to reduce stormwater from discharging in receiving waters.  The project was supported by National Fish & Wildlife Foundation’s Chesapeake Bay Stewardship Fund Technical Capacity Grant Program and enabled the EFC to work with the County and the County’s PSSD to identify opportunities to coordinate between the entities in order to more adequately and proactively address stormwater issues and develop a robust stormwater program budget and financing strategy for the community. The final report is the culmination of all activities and recommendations developed by the EFC to support the community’s stormwater management program.

Stormwater Financing Feasibility Study for Wrightsville Borough, Pennsylvania

July 17, 2015

The EFC has spent the past year working closely with Wrightsville Borough, located along the Susquehanna River in York County, PA to conduct a stormwater financing feasibility study. The project was supported by the US EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office, and enabled the EFC to work with the Borough and the Borough’s Municipal Authority to identify opportunities to coordinate between the entities in order to more adequately and proactively address stormwater issues, and develop a robust stormwater program budget and financing strategy for the community. The final report is the culmination of all activities and recommendations developed by the EFC to support the community’s stormwater management program.

Scranton Asset Management Guidebook

December 3, 2014

In this guidebook, the EFC provided guidance on building a stormwater asset management program for the city of Scranton. The EFC is hopeful that this work will be used as a tool for other communities in the Mid-Atlantic and across the country to help advance stormwater programs with limited resources. 

Integrating Water into Local and Regional Sustainability Planning

May 27, 2014

On behalf of the Environmental Finance Center Network (EFCN), this document features case stories of nine "Sustainable Communities" grant recipient communities that are successfully integrating water into their local and regional sustainability planning efforts. The projects demonstrate ways that water-related challenges and opportunities can be a key part of planning for a regions long-term economic competitiveness, quality of place, and liveability.

Stormwater Analysis for The Town of Federalsburg, Maryland: A Student Supported Engineering Assessment

April 30, 2014

With support from the Maryland Department of the Environment, in this project:

-Engineering Students from the A. J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland at College Park conducted field investigations to confirm the location and sizes of the existing stormwater system structures and pipes.  The students collected the data in order to develop a Master Stormwater Plan, ultimately to be used in the administration of the Town’s Stormwater Management Ordinance and for use in the future development of a stormwater capital maintenance budget and plan. 

-Robert Rauch of the engineering firm Rauch and Associates supervised the students and was the engineer of record for the Stormwater Master Plan and the mapping of the stormwater drainage areas. 

-The Environmental Finance Center (EFC) sought to use a foundation of engineering along with geographic information analysis and financial analysis, to gather, organize, and synthesize data about stormwater in the Town of Federalsburg, as well as provide the Town with recommendations and a basis with which to make informed decisions about project planning and resource allocation in the future.   

Federalsburg has a long and proud history.  The Town was named for the Federalist Party, which met in the Town in 1821, and the Town was incorporated in 1823.  In 1868, the Seaford and Cambridge Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad was opened for traffic and marked a new era for Federalsburg, as the railroad, with its refrigeration accommodation, made urban markets accessible and spurred industrial and warehouse facilities to locate in the Town.  To this day, production is an important component of the Federalsburg economy, with companies such as Solo Cup, Jack and Jill Ice Cream, and Stove Top Stuffing all calling the Town home.  

However, this history of industrialization and the subsequent decline of industrial facilities and infrastructure assets pose unique and difficult challenges in addressing stormwater issues for a Town the size of Federalsburg with limited resources.  But the history and expertise located in Federalsburg also poses an unique opportunity for stormwater management to be a catalyst for urban redevelopment through the use of engineering, leveraging the intellectual and entrepreneurial “problem solving” spirit, and by using informed decision making to allocate resources to invest in stormwater and improve water quality in a way that provides a foundation on which to build and serve as a catalyst for redevelopment and revitalization.    

An important first step in this process of stormwater management is the development of an inventory of the existing stormwater infrastructure.  With such an inventory along with engineered data and plans, the Town of Federalsburg can then make informed decisions and allocate resources in the planning of future projects. 

The documents below encompass the reports and engineering products developed in the project by the students, Rauch Engineering, and EFC.

Related Documents

EFC Report: Stormwater Analysis for The Town of Federalsburg, Maryland:  A Student Supported Engineering Assessment

Preliminary Engineering Report

Engineered Stormwater Management Plan

Engineered Map of Stormwater Drainage Areas

The Cost of Achieving a Restored Chesapeake Bay

March 4, 2014

Over the past year, Main Street Economics and the Environmental Finance Center have worked in partnership to study the anticipated costs of achieving local Watershed Implementation Plans in communities across the region as well as options for reducing costs in the long-term.  To that end, the attached EFC Policy Brief, written by Robert Wieland of Main Street Economics, summarizes our cost analysis in two Maryland communities.  

With a new Chesapeake Bay Agreement and its stated focus on implementation costs, we feel that this report is very timely.  While financing obligations will require difficult political decisions at the local level, our analysis indicates that with a focus on efficiency and flexibility, water quality goals can be achieved.

Local Government Stormwater Financing Manual: A Process for Program Reform

February 6, 2014

EFC’s new Local Government Stormwater Financing Manual was inspired by and written for local government leaders.  Public sector financing in general, and stormwater financing specifically often appear to be inaccessibly complicated and technical to even experienced public officials.  Therefore, rather than try to address the myriad of issues associated with stormwater financing, our strategy was to provide a foundation for local officials to move forward by focusing on perhaps the most important financing attribute: leadership and the ability to move communities towards effective action.

Our intent was not to produce a static document.  Rather, it is our intent to use this manual as the launching point for a dynamic financing resource that will develop and grow along with the burgeoning stormwater financing industry.  To that end, this manual is the first in a series of resources to be developed by the Environmental Finance Center that will address important financing issues and opportunities, including:

  • Reducing costs through the use of performance-based financing;
  • Establishing effective stormwater rebate and credit programs;
  • Using markets and offsets in an urban environment; and,
  • Maximizing stormwater benefits through the use of green infrastructure practices.


Manual structure:

This manual is divided into four parts:

  • An introduction, which asserts that a paradigm shift is underway in stormwater finance, and local government staff have a critical role to play in leading that shift;
  • A description of why stormwater management and finance are being transformed and why local governments are at the center of that transformation process;
  • A policy/program development model that was created by Bryson and Crosby (1992) and is applied in the manual to the development of stormwater policies and programs; and,
  • A set of appendices, including:
    • A description of the risks of leading change on big problems, such as transforming stormwater finance systems, and methods for managing those risks;
    • Results of focus group interviews that ground the manual on situations being faced by local government staff;
    • A technical note for experienced readers on setting stormwater utility rate structures; and
    • A list of acronyms and their meanings.

Readers may want to devote their attention to particular sections of the manual.  For example, those who are experienced in the dramatic shifts underway in stormwater management may want to pay more attention to the model than to the description of why stormwater management and finance are being transformed.  Likewise, a reader already immersed in finding a solution to a stormwater problem may want to focus on the “Creating a Solution” phase of the model.  A cautionary note, however: creating an effective solution is dependent on having accomplished two prior phases, “Gaining an Initial Agreement” and “Formulating the Problem.”

In sum, this manual provides, for local government staff, background information about a paradigm shift underway in stormwater management and a process model for being effective leaders in their jurisdictions to create policies and programs to finance that shift.  Our goal is to encourage and empower your leadership efforts.

Stormwater and Flood Management Financing Study in Oxford, Maryland

February 4, 2014

The study finds that stormwater infrastructure and shoreline management are inseparable and must be part of a unified solution – stormwater infrastructure to store and convey rainfall or tidewaters, and shoreline management to address the reality of sea level rise. While some preliminary engineering solutions were evaluated, the chief recommendation from the study is for Oxford to adopt a local stormwater and shoreline protection fee that will raise the revenue necessary to invest in water management infrastructure such as constructed wetlands and stormwater pumps. Chesapeake Bay health and flood-related pollution runoff are also addressed in the study.  

Financing Feasibility Study for Stormwater Management in the City of Bowie, MD

January 21, 2014

In May 2012, the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) at the University of Maryland was contacted by the City of Bowie for assistance with understanding the costs associated with stormwater management and knowing the resources necessary to better manage stormwater in the future in order to maintain their current management standards. Through the support of the Chesapeake and Coastal Service of Maryland’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR), EFC was able to conduct a stormwater financing feasibility study in 2013.

Stormwater Management (MS4 & CSO) System Review Report, Scranton, PA

December 3, 2013

The following report represents a compilation of four individual analyses that together provide a framework for the City of Scranton, Pennsylvania and the Scranton Sewer Authority (SSA) to move forward in implementing a more comprehensive stormwater program. The Environmental Finance Center worked closely with the City and SSA, along with the project partners, to complete a stormwater management and financial analysis that resulted in recommendations on how to implement a cost-effective and sustainable stormwater management program. Additionally, the Lackawanna River Corridor Association (LRCA) completed a sub-watershed inventory and analysis that included watershed and stream recommendations; McLane Associates completed a green infrastructure inventory and analysis that identifies a strategic approach to green infrastructure and highlights multiple project opportunities; and the LRCA and Hatala Associates focused on environmental education, outlining a strategy to implement a more robust public outreach and engagement campaign.   The study was completed with funding from the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation. 

Calvert County, Maryland Water Quality Financing Strategy

October 21, 2013

The above document provides a final report summarizing a technical service project implemented by the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC), in partnership with Main Street Economics, on behalf of the Calvert County, Maryland government.  Through the support of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the EFC developed a strategy to improve the capacity of Calvert County to implement water quality restoration and protection projects and practices through the use of more flexible and sustainable financing processes.

Lancaster County Municipal Stormwater Management Financing Feasibility Study

October 1, 2013

The following report provides the findings and recommendations of a stormwater financing feasibility study conducted by the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland for six municipalities located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania – East Cocalico, Manheim, Warwick, and West Lampeter Townships and Lititz and Mount Joy Boroughs. The EFC worked closely with each individual municipality to provide an in-depth analysis of each current stormwater management program, and provide management and financing recommendations to help each municipality improve the level of service provided to its constituents and sustain a comprehensive local stormwater program over time. In addition, the EFC worked cooperatively with the six municipalities to identify efficiency gains across the board by highlighting opportunities to collaborate, promoting green infrastructure solutions, and finding ways to improve internal staff capacity. The study was completed with funding from the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation and sponsorship from the Lancaster County Clean Water Consortium.  

Stormwater Financing Feasibility Study: Salisbury, Maryland

May 6, 2013

In September 2011, the EFC was contracted by the City of Salisbury to conduct a stormwater financing feasibility study as part ofthe Stormwater Unit, an effort made possible through the support of the Chesapeake and Coastal Service of Maryland’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR).  Additional funds from the Town Creek Foundation were provided for the Project Team to conduct outreach and education activities to support these efforts.

The immediate goal of EFC’s stormwater efforts in Salisbury was to recommend a long-term dedicated funding stream that is equitable and effective in generating sufficient revenue for the City to maintain a comprehensive stormwater program.

Financing Feasibility Study for Stormwater Management in Berlin, Maryland

October 19, 2012

In the summer of 2011, the Environmental Finance Center began working with the Town of Berlin, MD – an Eastern Shore community with a population of approximately 4,000 – to complete a stormwater financing feasibility study. 

Appendices - Financing Feasibility Study for Stormwater Management in Berlin, Maryland

October 18, 2012

These are the appendices to the Financing Feasibility Study for Stormwater Management in Berlin, Maryland report, October 2012.

Stormwater FAQ

April 1, 2012

A description of stormwater financing, the services the Stormwater Unit provides, and a summary of past and current projects.

Stormwater in the City of Salisbury

March 27, 2012

Fact sheet about the impact of stormwater on the City of Salisbury and local watersheds.

2011 Impact Analysis of a Beverage Container Deposit Program in Maryland

December 15, 2011

In October 2011, the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) at the University of Maryland was asked to investigate the feasibility of a beverage container deposit program in the state of Maryland.  The objective of the study is to quantify a beverage container deposit program's contribution to Maryland's goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and stormwater related trash.  In addition, the EFC project team was asked to determine what monies might be available to the state as a result of unredeemed beverage container deposits.

Stormwater in Berlin: How much is too much?

December 1, 2011

Fact sheet about the impact of stormwater on the Town of Berlin and surrounding watershed.

Financing Feasibility Study for Stormwater Management in Ocean City, Maryland

September 1, 2011

In November 2009, city engineers with the Town of Ocean City, Maryland met with representatives from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center (EFC) to discuss their concerns about managing stormwater runoff in their town. Concerns included: an aging stormwater conveyance system, flooding impacts, water pollution concerns and inadequate system maintenance. These problems were compounded by funding limitations. This feasibility study provides a series of recommendations to the Town of Ocean City for stormwater expenses and potential funding streams.

Sassafras River Agriculture and Ecology Center: Concept Paper

February 1, 2010

The Sassafras River Association (SRA) with several partners has developed the Sassafras Watershed Action Plan (SWAP) to identify major threats to the Sassafras River and develop restoration strategies with the goal of a cleaner and healthier river.  The SWAP was approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in early 2010, and will be finalized in March 2010.  The proposed Saassafras River Center is well-aligned with the outreach, education, recreation, and watershed protection guidelines found in the SWAP.

Improving Local Government Capacity for Watershed Planning and Implementation Efforts: Sassafras Watershed Action Plan (SWAP) Financing Recommendation

November 1, 2009

Prepared for the Sassafras River Association, this report is a strategic plan for restoring and protecthing the Sassafras watershed.  In this report, the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) proposes a set of financing recommendations for three different priority areas identified by the SRA: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades for the towns of Galena and Betterton, the repair or replacement of community septic systems in the Sassafras watershed, and stormwater management for severely degraded runoff sites along Route 301.

Improving Watershed Planning Capacity: Middle Chester Partnership -- A Sustainable Implementation Strategy for the Middle Chester Watershed, Kent Coun

July 1, 2009

When the availability of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources' Local Implementation Grants Program (DNR LIG) was announced in 2008, several entities operating in the Chester River watershed expressed an interest in the opportunity to utilize the funding for collaborative projects that would restore and protect the watershed.  Stakeholders organized to form the Middle Chester Partnership and agreed upon a collection a collection of nutrient reducing agricultural, septic, and restoration projects.  The Environmental Finance Center's goal in the Middle Chester Partnership was to help partners in better detailing the tasks, anticipated outcomes, and costs associated with collection of proposed LIG projects to develop a more formal implementation and financing strategy.  

Eastern Delaware County Council of Governments MS4 Stormwater Coordination Project: Final Recommendations, Findings, and Observations

March 1, 2009

Properly managing stormwater is one of the most costly and complicated tasks we face today.  The effort to meet hte Federal and State Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) program requirements presents challenges to state and local governments alike.  As part of the Pennsylvania Resource Conservation and Development Council's project team, the Environmental Finance Center assisted in the evaluation of NPDES Phase II permit plans and associated costs of implementing those plans for six to eight Pennsylvania unicipalities in the eastern Delaware County Council of Governments area.  This evaluation was intended to compare expected compliance costs against actual costs and evaluate local capacity to meet MS4 requirements.

Pennsylvania Stormwater Financing Initiative: Final report

June 1, 2008

This report is designed to help communities manage and finance their stormwater management programs.  Using the results of leadership dialogues and capacity surveys, the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland organized and conducted a stormwater financing forum to provide recommendations about how communities can develop and implement sustainable financing programs to support stormwater programs in their communities.

Community Financing for Septic System Management in the Inland Bays Watershed: A White Paper Report

January 29, 2008

This report is the culmination of a year-long outreach and technical assistance effort managed by the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC), in coordination with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) and First State Community Action Agency (FSCAA) for the Inland Bays Watershed, located in Sussex County, Delaware. The project was designed to identify sustainable financing strategies to support community financing needs related to upcoming septic system inspection and performance requirements planned as part of a Pollution Control Strategy (PCS) to reduce nutrient loads that would meet Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The project had two objectives – first, to clarify costs and financing needs of affected residents related to the proposed regulations and second, to identify creative financing opportunities to address these needs.   

Growing Successful Watershed Organizations: Six Case Stories

June 1, 2007

This paper contains the stories of six watershed organizations considered "successful." Success was gauged by their demonstrated accomplishments and by their growth in members and annual budgets.  The stories shared approaches used by organizational leaders to grow outstanding watershed organizations.  Althrough all of the groups began small, they are now significantly larger organizations with expanded annual budgets, membership, and staff.  Their "lessons learned" can be instructive for groups who are active in their watersheds and who hope to achieve similar findings

Schuylkill Action Network Financing Strategy: A White Paper Report

January 1, 2007

The purpose of this report is to outline the funding and financing challenges related to restoring and protecting water resources int he Schuylkill watershed, and to provide recommendations to the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary on behalf of the Schuylkill Action Netowrk for supporting key financing needs throughout the region.  Our analysis focused on the Network's four "areas of concern" -- abandoned mine drainage, agriculture wastewater, and stormwater -- highlighted in the Schuylkill River source water assessment.

Financing Land Preservation in West Virginia's Cacapon and Lost River Watershed: Final Program Report

April 10, 2006

On November 2, 2005, the University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center, on behalf of the Cacapon and Lost Rivers Land Trust (the Trust), convened a financing charrette to assist the Trust in their efforts to develop a long-range financial strategy for protecting a particularly critical section of land in the watershed. The goal of the event was to develop the framework for a financing and implementation plan for preserving more than 14,000 acres linking an existing conservation hub to a national forest and a wildlife management area. This report, developed by the staff at the Environmental Finance Center, outlines the core components of a sustainable, effective financing strategy, and provides detailed next steps and recommendations for implementation. 



Green Infrastructure Map - Full Collection of Infographics

December 5, 2014

Learn about the innovative financing behind 20 communities’ green infrastructure program. View and download the full collection of infographics featured in our Green Infrastruture Financing Map. 

EFC Releases New Report on Green Infrastructure in Warrington Township, Pennsylvania

October 1, 2014

In this final report, the EFC provided a set of recommendations to the Township, including identifying and prioritizing funding sources for the Township to access, developing partnerships with existing local organizations, and integrating green infrastructure into land conservation planning and project site design.

Green Infrastructure in the Mid-South

June 30, 2014

On behalf of the Environmental Finance Center Network (EFCN) through the Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities program, this report presents recommendations for implementing and financing green infrastructure elements of the Mid-South Regional Greenprint Vision Plan so that the region can enhance water quality while simultaneously extending its network of trails for recreation, active transportation, public health, and other community benefits.

Integrating Water into Local and Regional Sustainability Planning

May 27, 2014

On behalf of the Environmental Finance Center Network (EFCN), this document features case stories of nine "Sustainable Communities" grant recipient communities that are successfully integrating water into their local and regional sustainability planning efforts. The projects demonstrate ways that water-related challenges and opportunities can be a key part of planning for a regions long-term economic competitiveness, quality of place, and liveability.

City of York GI Webinar Part 3

March 1, 2013

American Rivers’ winter webinar series for Chesapeake Bay communities.  Benefitting from Green Infrastructure:  A look at costs, funding and financing.

Part 3. Financing Strategies for Green Infrastructure Programs

Presented by Jennifer Cotting and Monica Billig, Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland 

Encouraging Efficient Green Infrastructure Investment

February 7, 2013

Created with support from the US Forest Service, Encouraging Efficient Green Infrastructure Investment examines the many federal-level programs and policies designed to support green infrastructure implementation and offers recommendation for improving the efficiency with which these programs operate.  The report also include a matrix of federal funding programs available, which served as the basis for the National Association of Regional Councils' web-based tool Roadmap to Green Infrastructure in the Federal Agencies.

Improving Organizational and Conservation Capacity: Options for Maryland's Lower Shore Land Trust

June 1, 2010

As a part of the technical assistance that the Defenders of Wildlife and the National Park Service are providing to the Lower Shore Land Trust (LSLT), the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC) has worked with program partners and LSLT staff and board members to develop a set of suggested financing opportunities for growing the organization and expanding its impact in the three‐county service area.  Suggested financing options include: (1) Make the most of the programs that have proven effective to date; (2) Investigate the feasibility of new revenue generating opportunities; and (3) Enhance and expand partnerships. 

Community Visioning in Prince William County's Occoquan Magisterial District: Final Report and Recommendations

January 1, 2009

 Located at the edge of the Coastal Plain, the landscape of the Occoquan District of Prince William County is characterized by fragile soils, steep slopes, wooded areas, and a significant network of streams. Certain critical issues currently affect the Occoquan District including conserving and protecting natural beauty and environmentally sensitive areas; expanding transportation choices to include public transit, pedestrian and non-motorized opportunities; providing housing choices that accommodate the full-range of residents from diverse social, cultural, and financial backgrounds; and supporting a broad array of business enterprises, including locally-owned businesses.  Since planning for future growth is a long-term process which involves significant time and effort, a Community Visioning Charrette was specifically designed for the Occoquan District by the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland, Occoquan District Supervisor Michael C. “Mike” May, and the Planning Commissioner, Kim Hosen. The goal of the Charrette was to gather information from the community, initially through a general survey, followed by a facilitated public meeting that included hands-on exercises. The EFC used this data to make recommendations intended to serve as the basis for a long-term, sustainable community plan for the Occoquan District. 

Community Financing for Septic System Management in the Inland Bays Watershed: A White Paper Report

January 29, 2008

This report is the culmination of a year-long outreach and technical assistance effort managed by the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC), in coordination with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) and First State Community Action Agency (FSCAA) for the Inland Bays Watershed, located in Sussex County, Delaware. The project was designed to identify sustainable financing strategies to support community financing needs related to upcoming septic system inspection and performance requirements planned as part of a Pollution Control Strategy (PCS) to reduce nutrient loads that would meet Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The project had two objectives – first, to clarify costs and financing needs of affected residents related to the proposed regulations and second, to identify creative financing opportunities to address these needs.   

Chesapeake Bay Financing Authority Organizational Template: A White Paper From The Financing Authority Committee Chesapeake Bay Program

July 1, 2005

In January of 2005, the Chesapeake Executive Council issued Directive 04-1 in response to the recommendations set forth by the Blue Ribbon Finance Panel. That directive instructed the Principals’ Staff Committee "to convene a Committee of federal, state, and regional finance and legal experts to provide a specific proposal" for a regional financing authority that would help finance and implement programs to restore and protect water quality throughout the Chesapeake watershed. This Report of the Committee of experts outlines the conceptual framework for a Chesapeake Bay Regional Financing Authority.  Four core deliverables include: (1) Governance structure for an authority; (2) Regulatory and/or legislative changes necessary (state and federal); (3) Specific examples of funding mechanisms that could generate necessary revenue streams; (4) Decision-making mechanisms relative to the allocation of loan and grant funds.



Program Related Investments: Financing Opportunities for Water Quality Projects in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

August 5, 2013

EFC investigated private philanthropic program related investment (PRI) as a financing option for projects that promote water quality improvement initiatives within the Chesapeake Bay, such as manure‐to‐energy. The investigation occurred through a series of interviews with various philanthropic organizations to better quantify the opportunities associated with PRI funding. A list of interview questions was developed to provide essential information for establishing this portfolio option for Chesapeake Bay funding organizations along with a strategy to engage these groups. Foundations chosen for interview included entities located both within the Chesapeake Bay Region and those operating on an international scale.

Summary of Manure-to-Energy Initiative Interviews with Project Farmers

May 30, 2012

The Manure-to-Energy (M2E) Initiative Scope of Work for the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) involved surveying a set of producers to learn about their funding sources.  Most M2E projects produce heat, electricity, or organic fertilizer from livestock litter.  This document summarizes the results of EFC interviews with farmers participating in the M2E project and covers topics ranging from project benefits, partnerships, and financing.

Manure to Energy Initiative: Financing Inventory for Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia

May 30, 2012

The Manure-to-Energy Initiative (M2E) is a collaboration to demonstrate technologies in on-farm systems which, through gasification, convert poultry litter to heat and/or electrical energy, with ash as the principal co-product for incorporation in fertilizer.  

This document is meant to be a guide for anyone interested in the thermochemical conversion of poultry litter to heat and/or electricity to aid in the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.  Farms in the mid-Atlantic are the specific focus.  Information is provided about possible funding and financial resources in the form of grants, loans, loan guarantees, cost share programs, and other miscellaneous opportunities.

Assessing the Feasibility of Alternative Switchgrass Markets on Maryland’s Easter Shore

September 1, 2011

The purpose of this report is to investigate the market opportunities for switchgrass as an alternative energy source on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. This investigation includes an extensive series of interviews hosted by the EFC with resource experts who have first-hand experience with the science behind switchgrass production and the economics of agricultural operations, as well as expertise in biofuels production. Areas of focus include: liquid conversion, gasification, raw material use, and switchgrass densification. 

Poultry Litter Experts Science Forum

October 29, 2008

Summary of Chesapeake Research Consortium-Maryland Environmental Finance Center Science Forum.  Topics include: litter storage capacity and storage times, preventing runoff, "footprint" remediation, nutrient migration, and application recommendations.

Opportunities and Challenges in Agricultural Water Reuse

July 1, 2008

This report chronicles the events, presentations, and discussions of the Agricultural Water Reuse Joint Specialty Conference held October 29-31, 2006, in Santa Rosa, California.  Special topics include the current status of water reuse in agriculture, successful implementation of water reuse, critical emerging issues, technologies needed to implement water reuse projects, and key recommendations for the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Schuylkill Action Network Financing Strategy: A White Paper Report

January 1, 2007

The purpose of this report is to outline the funding and financing challenges related to restoring and protecting water resources int he Schuylkill watershed, and to provide recommendations to the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary on behalf of the Schuylkill Action Netowrk for supporting key financing needs throughout the region.  Our analysis focused on the Network's four "areas of concern" -- abandoned mine drainage, agriculture wastewater, and stormwater -- highlighted in the Schuylkill River source water assessment.



University of Maryland University College, Climate Action Plan Update

January 15, 2014

The University of Maryland University College, a signatory of the American Colleges and Universities President’s Climate Commitment, has achieved multiple energy management and sustainability milestones over the past five years. 

Universities at Shady Grove

January 15, 2013

In the fall of 2012, the EFC was contracted to develop a greenhouse gas inventory and analysis for the Universities at Shady Grove, a regional education center of the University System of Maryland. The goal of the project was to formulate methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions, and to execute calculations, associated with the University’s multi-campus commuting, procurement of electricity and fuels, and other sources of emissions.

Towson University

January 15, 2013

In the fall of 2012, the EFC was contracted to develop a greenhouse gas inventory and analysis for Towson University. The goal of the project was to update the University’s greenhouse gas inventory for the period 2009-2011.

Find more information here.



Restoring and Protecting Maryland's Working Waterfronts

May 31, 2014

Nationally, waterfronts and the waterways that connect them are an important component of the U.S. economy. In addition, working waterfronts provide critical access for water-­-dependent activities by creating dedicated space for those engaged in tasks like cleaning and storing gear, loading and unloading materials or the day’s catch, and conducting related land-­-based operations.  In Maryland, working waterfronts can be essential connections to both traditional economies and industries, as well as cultural heritage and history. As a result, restoring and protecting waterfront economies has been a priority in Maryland for many years.

Managed and directed by the Environmental Finance Center (EFC), this report provides the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Chesapeake and Coastal Service (CCS) with a strategy for incentivizing local efforts to revitalize working waterfront communities and economies throughout the state.  The objective with this project was two-fold: 1) identify opportunities for state leaders to employ innovative financing policies and tools in support of local working waterfront initiatives; and, 2) provide the Department of Natural Resources Chesapeake and Coastal Services Program with a recommended structure for establishing a working waterfronts program within the agency. These objectives are addressed at various points throughout the report. 

Stormwater Analysis for The Town of Federalsburg, Maryland: A Student Supported Engineering Assessment

April 30, 2014

With support from the Maryland Department of the Environment, in this project:

-Engineering Students from the A. J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland at College Park conducted field investigations to confirm the location and sizes of the existing stormwater system structures and pipes.  The students collected the data in order to develop a Master Stormwater Plan, ultimately to be used in the administration of the Town’s Stormwater Management Ordinance and for use in the future development of a stormwater capital maintenance budget and plan. 

-Robert Rauch of the engineering firm Rauch and Associates supervised the students and was the engineer of record for the Stormwater Master Plan and the mapping of the stormwater drainage areas. 

-The Environmental Finance Center (EFC) sought to use a foundation of engineering along with geographic information analysis and financial analysis, to gather, organize, and synthesize data about stormwater in the Town of Federalsburg, as well as provide the Town with recommendations and a basis with which to make informed decisions about project planning and resource allocation in the future.   

Federalsburg has a long and proud history.  The Town was named for the Federalist Party, which met in the Town in 1821, and the Town was incorporated in 1823.  In 1868, the Seaford and Cambridge Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad was opened for traffic and marked a new era for Federalsburg, as the railroad, with its refrigeration accommodation, made urban markets accessible and spurred industrial and warehouse facilities to locate in the Town.  To this day, production is an important component of the Federalsburg economy, with companies such as Solo Cup, Jack and Jill Ice Cream, and Stove Top Stuffing all calling the Town home.  

However, this history of industrialization and the subsequent decline of industrial facilities and infrastructure assets pose unique and difficult challenges in addressing stormwater issues for a Town the size of Federalsburg with limited resources.  But the history and expertise located in Federalsburg also poses an unique opportunity for stormwater management to be a catalyst for urban redevelopment through the use of engineering, leveraging the intellectual and entrepreneurial “problem solving” spirit, and by using informed decision making to allocate resources to invest in stormwater and improve water quality in a way that provides a foundation on which to build and serve as a catalyst for redevelopment and revitalization.    

An important first step in this process of stormwater management is the development of an inventory of the existing stormwater infrastructure.  With such an inventory along with engineered data and plans, the Town of Federalsburg can then make informed decisions and allocate resources in the planning of future projects. 

The documents below encompass the reports and engineering products developed in the project by the students, Rauch Engineering, and EFC.

Related Documents

EFC Report: Stormwater Analysis for The Town of Federalsburg, Maryland:  A Student Supported Engineering Assessment

Preliminary Engineering Report

Engineered Stormwater Management Plan

Engineered Map of Stormwater Drainage Areas

The Cost of Achieving a Restored Chesapeake Bay

March 4, 2014

Over the past year, Main Street Economics and the Environmental Finance Center have worked in partnership to study the anticipated costs of achieving local Watershed Implementation Plans in communities across the region as well as options for reducing costs in the long-term.  To that end, the attached EFC Policy Brief, written by Robert Wieland of Main Street Economics, summarizes our cost analysis in two Maryland communities.  

With a new Chesapeake Bay Agreement and its stated focus on implementation costs, we feel that this report is very timely.  While financing obligations will require difficult political decisions at the local level, our analysis indicates that with a focus on efficiency and flexibility, water quality goals can be achieved.

Uncapping the Pros and Cons of a Bottle Deposit Program

March 1, 2012

Will a beverage container deposit program reduce litter in Maryland?  And at what cost?  An examination of this issue -- along with potential impacts on recycling rates, employment, beverage sales, and greenhouse gas emissions.

2011 Impact Analysis of a Beverage Container Deposit Program in Maryland

December 15, 2011

In October 2011, the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) at the University of Maryland was asked to investigate the feasibility of a beverage container deposit program in the state of Maryland.  The objective of the study is to quantify a beverage container deposit program's contribution to Maryland's goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and stormwater related trash.  In addition, the EFC project team was asked to determine what monies might be available to the state as a result of unredeemed beverage container deposits.

Impact Analysis of a Beverage Container Deposit Program in Maryland

December 15, 2011

In October 2011, the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) at the University of Maryland was asked to investigate the feasibility of a beverage container deposit program in the state of Maryland. The objective of the study is to quantify a beverage container deposit program’s contribution to Maryland’s goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and stormwater related trash. In addition, the EFC project team was asked to determine what monies might be available to the state as a result of unredeemed beverage container deposits.

Improving Capacity: Options for Virginia's Capital Region Land Conservancy: Final Report

October 1, 2010

The Capital Region Land Conservancy (CRLC) is a Central Virginia land trust that focuses on the land preservation needs of the City of Richmond and the seven surrounding counties ‐‐ Chesterfield, Henrico, Hanover, Goochland, Powhatan, New Kent, and Charles City County. As a part of the technical assistance that the Defenders of Wildlife and the National Park Service are providing to CRLC, the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC) has worked with program partners and CRLC staff and board members to develop a set of suggested steps for growing the organization and expanding its impact in the organization’s service area. Based on an analysis of existing capacity and revenue and consultation with CRLC staff and program partners, the EFC suggests the following: (1) Create efficiencies that reduce costs and ensure wise resource investment; (2)Strategically recruiting new board members and volunteers; (3) Diversify the revenue stream; (4) Enhance and expand partnerships.   

Improving Organizational and Conservation Capacity: Options for Maryland's Lower Shore Land Trust

June 1, 2010

As a part of the technical assistance that the Defenders of Wildlife and the National Park Service are providing to the Lower Shore Land Trust (LSLT), the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC) has worked with program partners and LSLT staff and board members to develop a set of suggested financing opportunities for growing the organization and expanding its impact in the three‐county service area.  Suggested financing options include: (1) Make the most of the programs that have proven effective to date; (2) Investigate the feasibility of new revenue generating opportunities; and (3) Enhance and expand partnerships. 

Land Use Initiative Scoping Study: Final Recommendations

October 1, 2008

Early in 2008, the Land Use Work Group of the Chesapeake Bay Funders Network (CBFN) sought the assistance of the National Center for Smart Growth (NCSG) and the Environmental Finance Center (EFC) in completing a scoping exercise designed to offer funders within the CBFN an informed perspective about land use in the Bay watershed. The data generated from this scoping exercise is intended to connect the interests, priorities, and concerns of a diverse range of stakeholders, create a framework for long-term funding decisions, and motivate future collaboration within the CBFN.

The Chesapeake Bay Restoration Trust Fund: Implementing a Sustainable Investment Strategy

March 1, 2008

With the passage of the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Trust Fund Act of 2007  state leaders in Maryland have laid the foundation for an ambitious strategy for restoring and protecting the Bay. The creation of the Trust Fund, and the decision to capitalize it at the rate of $50 million per year, further positions Maryland as a regional and national leader in valuing and protecting critical natural resources. The opportunity now exists for the state to use the Trust Fund to implement an efficient and effective investment strategy. To implement this strategy, we recommend that the state develop a financing approach that provides flexibility, capacity, and efficiency in the investment process and the aggressive pursuit of opportunities to support research and development of new innovations and technologies that will provide long-term benefit to the restoration effort. 

Prince George's County Waste Management Review: Final Report

February 1, 2008

Prince George's County is an active partner in the Trash Free Potomac Watershed Initiative (TFPWI), a program initiated by the Alice Ferguson Foundation to reduce trash and increase recycling, education, and awareness of trash issues in the Potomac Watershed.  This Waste Management Review consists of extensive research and interviews with County personnel from all levels of waste management programs, and a series of recommendations for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of existing programs.

How Far Can Corn Take Us? Evaluating the Impacts of Ethanol: Final Report

January 2, 2008

Prepared for the Environmental Finance Center by Daria Karetnikov, Elizabeth Skane, and Abdel Abellard, this report seeks to distill the information available about ethanol production and to evaluate the entirety of the impact, primarily focusing on the economic and environmental effects.  The report includes an introduction to the policy behind ethanol production, causes behind governmental support for biofuels, trends in ethanol production, stakeholders in the ethanol production chain, ethanol plant structure and their costs of production, and a discussion of the impacts of industry expansion.

Establishment of a Chesapeake Finance Commission

December 1, 2007

In 2004, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Blue Ribbon Finance Panel issued a comprehensive analysis of the sources of impairments to the Bay's water quality and living resources, the costs to remove those impairments, and a series of recommendations to finance those costs.  This report proposes institutional changes for the regional Bay Program to help all participating states with ongoing information about funding needs and opportunities.

Growing Successful Watershed Organizations: Six Case Stories

June 1, 2007

This paper contains the stories of six watershed organizations considered "successful." Success was gauged by their demonstrated accomplishments and by their growth in members and annual budgets.  The stories shared approaches used by organizational leaders to grow outstanding watershed organizations.  Althrough all of the groups began small, they are now significantly larger organizations with expanded annual budgets, membership, and staff.  Their "lessons learned" can be instructive for groups who are active in their watersheds and who hope to achieve similar findings

Diversifying Funding for the Chesapeake Bay Trust: A White Paper Report

November 1, 2006

Over the past two decades, The Chesapeake Bay Trust (the Trust) has served as a leader in funding the state of Maryland’s Bay restoration and education programs. However, as the demand for funding increases with shifting community priorities, the Trust must think strategically about the viability and sustainability of its financial resources. In an effort to identify opportunities to build on its success, the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC) has produced a white paper report that provides a comprehensive analysis of current and future funding opportunities, as well as recommendations for further establishing the Trust as the preferred funding organization for Chesapeake Bay restoration programs in Maryland.   Our goal was to identify short-term revenue programs that can quickly increase the Trust’s grant making capacity, with a central focus on opportunities that provided the greatest potential for long-term, sustained revenue growth for the organization.  Our second goal was to identify opportunities for the Trust to expand its capacity and impact throughout the watershed, fill critical financing gaps in the Bay’s recovery, and increase its unique role in the Bay restoration process.

Partnership for the Delaware Estuary Financing Feasibility Study: Final Report

September 1, 2006

The Environmental Finance Center (EFC) at the University of Maryland was contracted by the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary (PDE) to conduct a feasibility study for developing a regional funding and financing entity for scientific research and the protection and restoration of the Delaware River and its watershed lands.  The final report contains four key sections (1) an examination of core issues involved; (2) an explanation of research structure and analysis criteria; (3) a detailed discussion of funding opportunities investigated, including administrative considerations, potential barriers, and recommended distribution methods; and (4) a series of recommendations for a financing startegy based on research findings.

Financing Land Preservation in West Virginia's Cacapon and Lost River Watershed: Final Program Report

April 10, 2006

On November 2, 2005, the University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center, on behalf of the Cacapon and Lost Rivers Land Trust (the Trust), convened a financing charrette to assist the Trust in their efforts to develop a long-range financial strategy for protecting a particularly critical section of land in the watershed. The goal of the event was to develop the framework for a financing and implementation plan for preserving more than 14,000 acres linking an existing conservation hub to a national forest and a wildlife management area. This report, developed by the staff at the Environmental Finance Center, outlines the core components of a sustainable, effective financing strategy, and provides detailed next steps and recommendations for implementation. 

Financing Land Preservation in Talbot County, Maryland

November 9, 2005

On June 22, 2005, the Environmental Finance Center, on behalf of Talbot County, Maryland, convened a financing workshop to assist County officials in their efforts to finance and implement a new Countryside Preservation Area program. The goal of the event was to develop the framework for financing and implementing a plan for protecting more than 11,000 acres around each of the four incorporated municipalities within the County. This report, developed by the staff at the Environmental Finance Center and the expert panelists who participated in the charrette, outlines the core components of a sustainable, effective financing strategy, and provides detailed next steps and recommendations for implementing this core feature of the County’s new Comprehensive Plan. 

Saving a National Treasure: Financing the Cleanup of the Chesapeake Bay

October 1, 2004

In an effort to identify the financial resources essential for cleaning up the nation’s largest estuary, the Chesapeake Executive Council in December 2003 called for the creation of a Blue Ribbon Finance Panel to make recommendations for the effective funding and financing of the Bay clean-up effort. It is clear that current funding does not begin to meet financing needs for restoring Bay water quality by 2010. Possibilities for reducing costs are also still being explored.  At the same time, we face continual cost increases in our efforts to reduce nutrients and sediment, especially since more than 100,000 people move to the Chesapeake watershed every year, and each day development in the basin adds to urban and suburban stormwater runoff and the disruption of natural hydrology. The restoration of the Bay will only become more expensive over time. It will be difficult to achieve a fully integrated approach for funding and implementation, given the number of jurisdictions along with the large presence of federal facilities and operations in the watershed. The Panel presents, in the context of specific funding needs, a number of suggestions for more effectively implementing existing funding programs and standing authorities to restore Bay water quality.   



Mid-Atlantic Dray Truck Replacement Program Final Report

September 29, 2014

In this final report, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association and the UMD EFC provide estimated emissions reductions, lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing future voluntary drayage truck replacement programs.

Clean Car Clinic Final Report 2010-2011

July 1, 2011

In 2010-2011, the Maryland Department of the Environment worked with the Environmental Finance Center at the University of Maryland (EFC) to expand the reach of the  Clean Car Clinics.  Certified technicians from the University of Maryland's Motor Transportation Services (MTS) conducted complimentary 26-point inspections for 185 Maryland drivers during 10 clinics held between June 2010 and May 2011.  This portfolio report summarizes the entire 2010-2011 Clean Car Clinic Program.



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Maryland’s Chesapeake Bay Restoration Financing Strategy

February 1, 2015

A new study by EFC sets the path for successfully restoring and protecting the Chesapeake Bay, the state’s most important natural resource.  The study, titled “Chesapeake Bay Financing Strategy”, provides a comprehensive assessment of the financial resources and investment strategies that will be necessary for Maryland to achieve its goals for reducing pollution to the Bay and the many rivers and streams that make up its watershed.

The complexity and scale of the Chesapeake Bay restoration effort has often seemed insurmountable due to a lack of sufficient funding or innovative financing programs.  However, as the EFC study indicates, the state of Maryland has made steady progress in achieving pollution reductions, and the resources, policies, and programs are in place to achieve its restoration and pollution reduction goals.  As the study indicates, however, achieving and maintaining restoration success will require state, local, and federal leaders to adopt and implement innovative new financing approaches.

In addition to a comprehensive assessment of the costs, regulations, and resources currently guiding the financing process, the study provides state leaders with recommendations for improving the return on its restoration investments.  The most significant of those recommendations is that the state continue to develop and implement a financing process that focuses on maximizing the return on every dollar invested by leveraging the marketplace and the private sector.  More significant cooperation and engagement between the public and private sectors are essential for reducing costs and accelerating the restoration process. 

The financing study is the second in a series of three publications being produced by EFC through its Integrated Public-Private Financing Initiative. This initiative, which is supported in large part by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, focuses on how public resources can be most efficiently and effectively invested in environmental restoration and conservation activities.